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Naturally Harvested  Sea Salt
Traditionally Harvested by sun evaporation

The sea water obtained is filtered with a 0.33 mm mesh.
Our Sea Salt is obtained by sun evaporation thus it maintains and contains a concentrated, perfect balance of Trace Minerals in Bioavailable form.
This trace elements are fundamental to health.

Contrary to the Boiling Method which removes both Calcium, Magnesium along with other minerals present in sea sea water.

Real Full Spectrum Sea Salt

Description of our salt

Salt of alimentary quality, the crystalline product that consists predominantly in chloride of sodium. It is obtained from the sea by the process of natural brine by solar evaporation, thus retaining all the wholeness characteristics of mineral salts of the sea.

Salt Classification


Natural Sea Salt, Common salt or coarse salt: Unprocessed product whose crystals must pass 90% or more through No. 8 (2.36 mm) sieve.
Ground Salt: Product obtained by the grinding of natural sea salt, common salt or coarse salt, whose crystals must pass 95% or more, through a No. 18 (1.00 mm) sieve.

Organoleptic characteristics

Appearance: crystals, according to the type of salt
Colour: White
Odour: Odourless
Flavour: Saline
 

Descripción de nuestra Sal

Sal de calidad alimentaría el producto cristalino que consiste predominantemente en cloruro de sodio. Se obtiene del mar por el processo de salmuera natural de evapuracion solar, reteniendo todas las caracteristicas beneficas de sales minerales del mar.

Classificacion de la Sal

Sal Natural de Mar, Sal común o sal gruesa: Producto no procesado cuyos cristales deberán pasar en un 90% o más por el tamiz N° 8 (2,36 mm).

Sal molida: Producto obtenido por la molienda de sal natural de mar, sal común o sal gruesa, cuyos cristales deberán pasar en un 95% o más, por un tamiz N° 18 (1,00 mm).

Características organolépticas

Aspecto: cristales, de acuerdo con el tipo de sal
Color: blanco
Olor: Inodoro
Sabor: Salino
 

Sea salt is a low-impact food

Unlike some foods that are harsh to the environment, sea salt is relatively gentle because it's produced by evaporating water from the ocean until all that remains is solid minerals. Table salt is normally made by solution-mining, while salt is extracted from underground deposits and then purified. Mining is an extractive industry and disturbs the natural environment, and the waste stream from the mined salt industry has an impact as well.

Sea salt helps boost your Minerals

With its minimal processing, sea salt retains many of its minerals. While all salt comes from the sea, salt that is mined comes from ancient sea beds and many of its minerals have dissipated — and the minerals that remain are lost in processing. Some sea salts have as many as 84 trace minerals, in addition to calcium, magnesium and potassium. Many other flavouring agents (like packaged seasoning mixes) have no minerals at all.

Sea salt decreases the additives you consume

Table salt is stripped of its minerals and has anti-caking agents, such as sodium aluminum silicate, or additive E-554. In fact, there are a total of 18 food additives that are allowed in salt. Sea salt contains no chemical additives. If you season with salt, you'll get fewer chemicals in your food if you use the sea salt variety.

Sea salt may lower your sodium intake

Although it has been reported that sea salt has less sodium than table salt, it’s not true. They both contain the same amount of sodium chloride by weight. However, sea salt has more flavour impact and so most people use less of it. The minerals enhance its flavour, and its larger grains deliver salty bursts in food, rather than the overall saltiness of fine table salt.

Iodized salt (or table salt)

Humans require trace amounts of iodine, a non-metallic mineral, for proper development and growth. It exists in most soils, and is absorbed by plants, which are in turn ingested by humans and animals. The thyroid gland is home to the body’s largest iodine stores, as it requires the mineral for synthesis of the hormones it secretes.

That’s why an iodine deficiency can lead to an enlarged thyroid gland (endemic goiter), slowed metabolism, weight gain, and other symptoms of hypothyroidism, including fatigue, and intolerance of cold. Additionally, a deficiency can also promote neurological, gastrointestinal, and skin abnormalities. It proves even more vital for pregnant or nursing mothers whose thyroid problems from an iodine deficiency can impede fetal and child development. In fact, this prenatal deficiency is the most common cause of preventable brain damage in the world.

Iodized salt (or table salt) was first sold in the United States in 1924 in efforts to thwart goiter, an issue plaguing the country’s “goiter belt” – stretching from the areas surrounding the Great Lakes to the Pacific Northwest.

While humanitarian efforts are making an impact, goiters and other health problems resulting from iodine deficiency are still common in parts of South America’s highlands, and areas within central Asia and Africa – where iodine was either drained from the soil by glaciation and flooding, or located far from ocean waters.

We can get iodine naturally by eating saltwater fish and seafood, kelp, and other sea vegetables, as well as vegetables grown in iodine-rich soils. Even dairy products can provide iodine if the animals graze on plants growing in soils containing iodine.

Conversely, the salt found in processed and fast foods is not iodized, with so much of our population substituting clean meals made from whole foods with take-out food or processed foods, iodine intakes in the United States have declined from about 250 micrograms (mcg) per day to 164 mcg daily. At a minimum, we need 150 mcg and the recommendation for pregnant and lactating women are at least 220 mcg and 290 mcg respectively.

Daily intakes of up to 1,100 mcg, including that from iodized salt, are considered safe for adults. But the amount for children is less, with the maximum amounts being 200 mcg for ages 1-3; 300 mcg for ages 4-8; 600 mcg for ages 9-13; and 900 for teens age 14-18.

If you are eating a healthy, balanced, varied diet, you’re probably getting enough iodine and don’t need to use iodized salt. To enhance flavor you can alternatively opt for gourmet salts, which are often non-iodized and contain other beneficial trace minerals. Or try sea salt, which contains only small amounts of iodine. I use both unrefined (gray) and refined (white) sea salt instead of commercial salts, which often contain additives I don’t like, such as aluminum compounds to prevent caking." - Andrew Weil, M.D. 2017

 


     Salt and Plant Health
 
Using Sodium Chloride to Control Plant Diseases

W. H. Elmer
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station,
123 Huntington St., P. O. Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504 USA

Long before scientists understood the role of sodium or chloride in crop production and plant disease management, farmers routinely applied sodium chloride to salt-tolerant crops to boost vigor and yields. Interestingly, a steady flow of studies over the past half century conclude that when sodium chloride is applied in quantities equal to macronutrients, certain crops fare better. These studies validate the opinions of a number of agriculturalists that touted the value of sodium chloride in crop management.

The first mention of using NaCl in crop management was a recommendation in the early 1800’s that salt be used as a top-dressing on barley to prevent lodging (a condition that may have been precipitated by a root disease) (Tottingham 1919). In the late 1800’s, a spring dressing of rock salt (NaCl) was considered to be “an excellent thing to apply to asparagus” to promote growth and suppress weeds (Walker 1905) and as later research has shown, to lessen damage from Fusarium crown and root rot (Elmer 1992).

Chloride salts were also routinely applied to other plants like beets, celery, and Swiss chard. If NaCl applications were not critical for crop growth, a significant consensus has emerged over the past two centuries that they are certainly beneficial for farming.

Studies of salt application were often done despite the prevailing opinion that NaCl applications were harmful. The fictitious account about the Romans salting Carthage to destroy plant life led to misguided beliefs about the use of salt in agriculture. Studies on salt-sensitive crops like tomatoes and strawberries and roadside salt damage along highways reinforced an attitude that salt had no place in agriculture. In fact, plant physiologists have not identified an essential role for sodium in plant health and simply assumed that chloride, known to be essential for photosynthesis, was so highly available in soils that salt supplements were unnecessary.

This confusion about NaCl use arose from conflicting reports as to its effect on certain crops. The benefits were observed only intermittently or not at all. Those studies led to the observation that the benefits of NaCl were most evident when plants were under stress by disease or drought. These observations suggested that NaCl fertilization may improve defense mechanisms against stress factors and may explain the lack of response when disease or stress factors are absent.

While sodium is not essential in plant growth, some isolated studies have found that sodium can substitute for the role of potassium when potassium levels are low. Most salt-tolerant plants have evolved the ability to exclude sodium from their cells or compartmentalize it in vacuoles.

Chloride is a different matter. Plant roots readily absorb chloride. Although the amount of chloride required by plants for photosynthesis is sufficed by extremely small concentrations, high rates of chloride have notably positive effects on soil/root relations, such as inhibiting the conversion of nitrate to ammonia, enhancing manganese availability, and increasing beneficial microorganisms. Chloride affects physiological processes, such as osmoregulation and organic and amino acid synthesis, which also have direct effects on nutrient cycling and root exudation.

Inasmuch as all these factors directly or indirectly influence the plant’s ability to withstand stress and resist disease, sodium chloride may function through many mechanisms that are not mutually exclusive from each other. The majority of reports demonstrating disease suppression with NaCl fertilization have been made on monocots such as asparagus, barley, coconut, and date palm. However, dicots like beets and celery also have shown considerable benefit from NaCl. A discussion on how NaCl affects different diseases of various crops is discussed below.

Asparagus

Long before herbicides were available, growers annually dressed their asparagus fields with rock salt (sodium chloride) to suppress weeds and promote growth. The practice was discontinued in the 1940’s when synthetic herbicides were made. In the decades that followed, the number of reports of Fusarium crown and root rot increased in the US. Pathogenic species of the fungus Fusarium cause the disease. When NaCl was applied to fields affected by the disease, spear yield was increased by 15-30% and disease symptoms were reduced. For example, in these declining fields, yield averages 2,000-2,500 lb/A.

Sodium chloride (applied as rock salt) at 500 lbs/A costs $7.50 to $30.00 depending on supplier. Assuming fresh asparagus would market at $2.00 /lb, A 15-30% increase per acre would generate between $700 to $2,143 /A in additional revenue. Spear number was usually not affected indicating that growers were getting larger spears. The chloride salts NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, and NH4Cl all have some ameliorating effect on disease, but NaCl was superior. Sodium carbonate or sodium nitrate (NaNO3) had little effect. The preference for NaCl over the other chloride sources may be because asparagus restricts Na uptake. This may allow the plant to absorb large concentrations of Cl in the absence of a metabolically active cation like K+ or NH4+ (Elmer 1992).

Barley

Of all the edible grains, barley has the highest tolerance for NaCl. The influence of NaCl on barley was first observed in the mid 1800’s where chloride applied as NaCl was found to stiffen the straw and prevent lodging. It is not clear from these reports if root disease was present, but root-rotting organisms are certainly a possibility. Long-term field tests were conducted with chloride on barley in Saskatchewan, Canada (Tinline et al., 1993), which found that both NaCl and KCl reduced common root rot. Other groups similarly found that NaCl or KCl did not differ in their effects and reported that 50 kg NaCl/ha reduced common root rot of barley in 2 of 6 experiments.

Beets

Beets presumably evolved from the wild maritime habitats, so it is not surprising to find them ranked as moderately tolerant to salinity. Several researchers interested in the role of potassium and sodium fertilizers first examined the beneficial role of NaCl on growth of sugar beets, table beets, and Swiss chard (Adams 1961). A study on the role of chloride salts on Rhizoctonia root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani found that NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2 all equally suppressed disease and promoted growth (Elmer 1997).

Coconut and Date Palm

The knowledge that coconuts and date palms respond to NaCl may not be surprising given the likely evolution of these plants in saline soils and their proximity to the shoreline habitats. The role of NaCl on growth and overall health of coconut was investigated long before its role in disease was discovered. Later researchers realized that NaCl applications could help restore infertile soils in the Philippines back to productive plantings.

In the mid 1970’s, researchers found applications of NaCl would suppress leaf spot disease caused by Bipolaris incurvata on coconut seedlings and that this treatment worked as well as fungicides (Magat et al., 1977). Given the relative cost of NaCl versus chemical fungicides, the savings were significant.

Corn

For over half a century, researchers have examined the role of chloride on corn in the suppression of stalk rot caused by Gibberella zeae and Gibberella fujikuori. As with most crops, most researchers focused on KCl believing that the potassium ion was more important, but studies eventually demonstrated that chloride was the disease-suppressing ion. When the actual role of sodium was investigated, they found that compared to controls, NaCl reduced smut by 23% as compared to an 11% reduction with Na2SO4 (Kostandi and Soilman, 1998).

Wheat

The effects of chloride salts on wheat diseases have probably been studied more thoroughly than on any other crop. A 1978 study found that applications of NaCl or KCl reduced the severity of stripe (yellow) rust of wheat caused by Puccinia striiformis (Russell 1978). An application of NaCl at 1130 kg/ha reduced disease incidence by an average of 63%. The effect was observed on six cultivars of wheat.

How does it work?

There have been many attempts to decipher the role of NaCl on disease. Sodium chloride is not fungicidal in soils since most soilborne pathogens grow better in culture as NaCl concentrations are increased to 0.5 to 1.0%. Moreover, densities of pathogens in soil remain relatively unchanged following NaCl applications.

Alternatively, researchers suggest NaCl acts through the soil environment, host physiology, and/or microbial community. In acids soil, NaCl inhibits conversion of NH4-N to NO3-N presumably due to its inhibitory effect on species of Nitrosomonas bacteria.

Maintaining nitrogen as NH4 can lower soil pH, change microbial populations, and alter host nutrition. In addition, acid soils treated with NaCl show an immediate release of soluble manganese ions. Manganese has been implicated in disease suppression probably through its effect on increasing host resistance. Since NaCl can also suppress disease and increase manganese levels in alkaline soils as well as in acid soils, it is obvious that mechanisms other than nitrification and chemical reduction of manganese must be operating.

As mentioned above, sodium is not known to benefit many physiological systems in plants. Chloride, on the other hand, is essential for photosynthesis and is the only inorganic anion that is not structurally bound to metabolites. One of its major roles is to serve as a charge-balancing ion to the vast number of cations present in plant cells. When a cell absorbs chloride, it accumulates in the cell vacuole and lowers the cell water potential below that of the medium surrounding the cell.

Water then flows into the cell and increases hydrostatic cell pressure so it maintains a pressure that exceeds the force exerted by the plasmalemma. The cells remain turgid and are able to grow even when drought conditions prevail.

This was first investigated in England in the 1970’s when applications of NaCl increased the water capacity of the sugar beet leaves and improved growth of the plant during periods of soil moisture deficits. Similar reports of NaCl suppressing disease while reducing osmotic potentials have been made on pearl millet affected by downy mildew, wheat affected by take-all disease, and asparagus affected by Fusarium. Other reports have shown similar effects using KCl to suppress disease.

Changes in osmotic potential affect the water cycling of plants and the exudation of carbon substrates. These substrates serve as a food base for microbes that live on and around the root. In 1980, the possible role that beneficial Pseudomonas species might play in disease suppression on chloride-treated wheat plants was recognized. Studies with KCl on celery confirmed that root exudates were being altered. When asparagus plants were treated with NaCl, an increase in the beneficial Pseudomonas species was noted (Elmer 2003). Thus, treating salt-tolerant plants with NaCl causes a root-mediated effect on the microbial community.

The major influence of NaCl fertilization on plant disease appears to be reduction of cell osmotic potential, increased manganese uptake, and enhancement of beneficial microbes via altered root exudation. Soil pH may have a governing effect on whether manganese uptake is mediated chemically or microbiologically.

In acid soils (<6.6), NaCl suppresses nitrification, whereas in neutral to alkaline soils, NaCl may enhance manganese availability by altering the nutritional composition of the root exudates that, in turn, favors microbes that possess the manganese reduction trait. These mechanisms would seemingly have far-reaching effects on both foliar and root diseases.

The final resolution of NaCl’s effect on plant disease, however, may require the use of genetic manipulations of chloride-sensitive plants. For example, NaCl-tolerant and -sensitive lines of Arabidopsis are available. Specific genes that affect sodium and chloride accumulations and partitioning in the plants could be used in studies designed to test water potential effects in the absence of manganese fluctuations and vice versa. Furthermore, transfer of particular genes that confer tolerance to NaCl into salt-sensitive plants may allow salt applications to be useful in managing these crops when stress prevails.

A better understanding of rates and timing of NaCl supplementation for plants at critical periods of development or pathogenesis will help agriculturalists better target NaCl nutrition, thus reducing demand on alternative control strategies, such as fungicides and fumigants. Many asparagus, beet, and coconut growers around the world have already adopted NaCl into their management programs.

Key References

Adams, S. N. 1961. The effect of sodium and potassium on sugar beet on the Lincolnshire limestone soils. J. Agric. Sci., Cambridge 56:283-286.

Elmer, W. H. 1992. Suppression of Fusarium crown and root rot of asparagus with sodium chloride. Phytopathology. 82:97-104.

Elmer, W. H. 1997. Influence of chloride and nitrogen form on Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of table beets. Plant Dis. 81:635-640.

Elmer, W. H. 2000. Use of NaCl to suppress root diseases of asparagus, beets, and cyclamen. Pages 234-237, In Proc. of Salt 2000 Symposium, May 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Elmer, W. H. 2003. Local and systemic effects of NaCl on asparagus root composition, rhizosphere bacteria, and development of Fusarium crown and root rot. Phytopathology 93:186-195

Fixen, P. E. 1993. Crop responses to chloride. Adv. Agron. 50, 107-150.

Hammer, P. M., and Beene, E. J. 1941. Effects of applying common salt to a muck soil on yield composition and quality of certain vegetable crops and on the composition of the soil producing them. Agron. J. 33:952-979.

Kostandi, S. F., and Soilman, M. F. 1998. Effect of saline environments on yield and smut disease severity of different corn genotypes (Zea mays. L). Phytopath. Z. 146:185-189.

Magat, S. S., Margate, R. Z., and Prudente, R. L. 1977. Utilization of common salt (sodium chloride) as a fertilizer and for the control of leaf spot disease of coconut seedlings. Phil. J. Cocon. Stud. 13, 2:39-45.

Maas, E. V. 1986. Physiological responses to chloride. Pages 4-20, In: Special Bulletin on Chloride and Crop Production T. L. Jackson, ed., No. 2, Potash & Phosphate Institute, Atlanta, Georgia.

Milford, G. F. J., Cormack, W. F., and Durrant, M. J. 1977. Effects of sodium chloride on water status and growth of sugar beet. J. Exp. Bot 28:1380-1388.

Russell, G. E. 1978. Some effects of applied potassium and sodium chloride on yellow rust in winter wheat. Ann Appl. Biol. 90:163-168.

Tinline, R. D., Ukrainetz, H., and Spurr, D. T., 1993. Effect of fertilizers and of liming acid soils on common root rot in whear and chloride on the disease in wheat and barley. Can. J. Plant Path. 15:65-73

Tottingham, W. E. 1919. A preliminary study of the influence of chlorides on the growth of certain agricultural plants. J. Am. Soc. Agron. 11:1-32.

Walker, E. 1905. Asparagus and salt. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 86:31-36.

Trace Mineral Salt
 
Trace Mineral Salt

Animals need more than salt for proper health and nutrition. Animals need trace mineral supplements. They are needed in very small amounts, or traces, in the diet, and hence their name, “trace minerals.”

The intake of salt and trace minerals is species-specific. Some of the trace minerals fed as a salt additive are iron oxide, copper, manganese, selenium, cobalt, iodine, zinc, and magnesium. Phosphorous, calcium, sulfur and some vitamins, such as A and D, are frequently added to salt as well. Also, salt has been used as a carrier to administer drugs like oxytetracycline, ionophores (ie., monensin and lasalocid) or anthelmintics (de-worming agents). Trace mineral nutrient needs pervade livestock and poultry but also include household pets and wild animals.

Subclinical trace mineral deficiencies occur more frequently than recognized by most livestock producers. Currently, minor but chronic under-consumption of trace minerals is a bigger problem than acute mineral deficiencies because the farmer (or pet owner) does not see specific symptoms that are characteristic of a trace mineral deficiency.

Instead, the animal grows or reproduces at a reduced rate, uses feed less efficiently and operates with a depressed immune system. The end result for commercial animal producers is inefficient production and lower profitability.

Some areas have pastureland with soils deficient in one or more trace minerals; the forage is then also deficient in trace minerals. And many times, feeds are shipped in from another region that may be trace mineral deficient

Salt is a carrier for trace minerals since all farm animals have an appetite for salt. Moreover, when cattle, horses, sheep and other animals are on pasture with little, no or varying amounts of concentrate feeding, producers can supply trace mineralized salt free-choice in the form of a mineral block or as loose trace mineral salt in a box.

Then, regardless of the amount of concentrates fed, and especially if none is fed, the animal can still consume salt and the trace minerals it contains. The trace mineral levels in salt or salt-based mineral products are guaranteed on the package.

Different levels of various minerals are added to salt for specific and different situations. The cost of adding the six trace minerals to salt is very low, ranging from less than one cent for poultry to 81¢ US for dairy cattle for a whole year.

Horses, beef cattle and dairy goats can be supplied trace minerals with salt for a year for less than 40¢; and calves, swine, sheep and meat goats for less than 15¢. This is certainly low-cost insurance compared to the benefits derived. If selenium is also added to salt, at a level of 20 to 30 ppm, the cost will be about ¾¢ more per pound.

 

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